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Apr 1 – 5, 2019
Fairmont Château Laurier Hotel
UTC timezone

Alpha-Particle Therapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Not scheduled
15m
Fairmont Château Laurier Hotel

Fairmont Château Laurier Hotel

Speaker

Dr Joseph Jurcic (Columbia University Medical center)

Description

Early studies using the humanized anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody lintuzumab labeled with β-emitters showed significant activity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but produced prolonged myelosuppression necessitating hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Targeted α-particle therapy may produce more efficient tumor killing while sparing normal cells. An initial phase I trial of bismuth-213 (213Bi)-lintuzumab in relapsed and refractory (R/R) AML provided proof-of-principle for systemically administered α-particle therapy (Jurcic, Blood 2002). 213Bi-lintuzumab demonstrated rapid targeting of disease sites without significant extramedullary toxicity. Target-to-whole body dose ratios were greatly enhanced compared to β-emitting immunoconjugates. Anti-leukemic effects were seen across all dose levels with a decrease in marrow blasts in 78% of patients. In a subsequent phase I/II trial, 213Bi-lintuzumab was administered following partial cytoreduction with cytarabine (Rosenblat, Clin Cancer Res 2010). Among patients receiving the maximum tolerated dose of 37 MBq/kg or higher, responses were seen in 24% of patients. The 46-minute half-life of 213Bi, however, remained an obstacle to its widespread use. Therefore, a more potent second-generation construct containing actinium-225 (225Ac) (t½ = 10 days), which generates four α-particle emissions, was developed. A phase I study demonstrated that a single dose of 225Ac-lintuzuamb was safe at doses of 111 kBq/kg or less and produced marrow blast reductions in 67% of evaluable patients with R/R AML (Jurcic, ASH 2011). Dose-limiting toxicity was prolonged myelosuppression, and no evidence of radiation-induced nephrotoxicity was seen. Based on these findings, 225Ac-lintuzumab was investigated in a multicenter phase I/II trial in combination with low-dose cytarabine for older patients with untreated AML (Jurcic, SNMMI 2017). During the first cycle of therapy, two fractions of 225Ac-lintuzumab (18.5-74 kBq/kg/fraction) were administered one week apart after completion of chemotherapy. Five of 18 patients (28%) had objective responses. All responses occurred after the first cycle. The baseline peripheral blood blast count was a strong predictor of outcome, as responses were seen only in patients with peripheral blast counts < 200/µL. This is most likely explained by preferential antibody binding to peripheral sites in patients with higher circulating blast counts, leading to decreased marrow targeting. Because of this observation, a multicenter phase II trial of 225Ac-lintuzumab monotherapy using hydroxyurea to lower peripheral blast counts if needed was undertaken in older AML patients (Finn, ASH 2017). Objective responses were seen in nine of 13 patients (69%) after two doses of 225Ac-lintuzumab (74 kBq/kg) administered one week apart. Myelosuppression, however, was considered to be longer than acceptable in this population, and additional patients were treated with two fractions of 55.5 kBq/kg each. 225Ac-lintuzumab has shown significant activity in AML both alone and in combination with chemotherapy. Future development of 225Ac-lintuzumab includes combinations with standard chemotherapy and novel targeted agents for R/R AML, treatment for measurable residual disease in AML, and conditioning before HCT in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.
Email Address jgj2110@cumc.columbia.edu
Presentation Type Contributed Oral

Primary author

Dr Joseph Jurcic (Columbia University Medical center)

Presentation materials

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